Carolyn Fischer is Research Manager for Sustainability and Infrastructure in the Development Research Group at the World Bank in Washington, DC. She holds appointments as a professor of environmental economics at the Vrije Universiteit – Amsterdam and as a Canada 150 Research Chair in Climate Economics, Innovation and Policy at the University of Ottawa, from which she is currently on leave. Carolyn joined RFF in 1997 and maintains her affiliation as a Senior Fellow. She is also a research fellow of the European Institute of Environmental Economics (EIEE), the Tinbergen Institute, and the CESifo Research Network. She is currently a Council Member for the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (EAERE), serves on expert advisory boards for research institutes in Europe and in North America, and is co-editor of Environmental and Resource Economics. She earned her Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Michigan—Ann Arbor in 1997. Carolyn is an expert on numerous topics in environmental and resource economics; a current area of focus is addressing issues of technical change, trade, and carbon leakage in environmental policy instrument design.